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What I Do September 15, 2010

Posted by jdstrand in ubuntu.

I’m often asked, “So Jamie, what do you do?” I find my answer is usually quite different depending on whom I am talking to. Normally I say something fairly bland like, “I’m a security engineer for Ubuntu, which is a Free alternative to Windows and Mac.” I try to say something about freedom and beer, but really by the time I get to the word ‘engineer,’ many people’s eyes go glassy (maybe they’re tearing up at the thought of working on free software for a living and I am just not empathetic enough to notice). There might be a follow-up question or two and I may even offer a free CD, but usually the response is a simple, “Oh, you work with computers?”

Yes, I work with computers.

The truth is I would love to talk in depth about what I do with people who ask, so when my employer asked people to blog about what they do, I was pretty stoked. So where to start? How about where I got started.

I started using Free Software in 1996, when I went back to school to expand my education. Not long after that, my wife was pregnant and I found myself needing a way to work on my school assignments from home. My computer graphics professor gave me the new RedHat 5.0. I went straight home, installed it and was hooked. A little while later I installed a pre-release version of Debian Slink. Like many others, I loved Debian’s package management, its policy and how it is community-based. These gifts of Free Software and the community around them were, and still are, very meaningful for me.

Fast forward a few years and you’ll find me setting up a business with Debian Woody. Back then Debian stable still had Gnome 1.4, so I was keen on finding a newer desktop on top of the reliable, stable and secure foundation that I admired in Debian. I found Gustavo Noronha Silva’s unofficial Gnome 2 packages, but I really wanted Gnome 2.2. He didn’t plan on providing 2.2 packages, so I took up that work by providing a full, modern desktop including Xfree86, evolution, Mozilla, and a whole lot more. I realized that I had a pretty good thing going and thought others could benefit, so I released this as the Gnome 2.2 Backport for Debian Woody. I provided security support and an upgrade path for the backport for more than 3 years until Woody’s end of life. During this same time I developed an intense interest in secure servers which led me to consulting and a strong advocacy of Free Software. These experiences helped me understand how much good you can bring to people by working on Free Software.

In 2007 I was interviewed for a position at Canonical and I’ll never forget Matt Zimmerman’s question in my interview: “What will stop you from quitting a year from now and going back to consulting?” Though I did not expect this question, the answer was immediate: “Because I know how much of an impact Free Software can have and I won’t have the opportunity to help more people than with Ubuntu.”

These days, I get paid by Canonical to work with computers.

As an Ubuntu Security engineer, I am on a team of people who are responsible for tending to known threats against Ubuntu. We track security vulnerabilities, triage bugs, interact with upstreams, coordinate with other vendors, sponsor patches from the community, liaise with upstreams and vendors on behalf of researchers, analyze vulnerabilities, add to the Debian CVE tracker and of course fix security bugs in Ubuntu. Quality assurance is an integral part of fixing a bug that can land on millions of users’ desktops, so I helped start and regularly participate in the QA Regression Testing (QRT) project. In addition to helping our team prevent regressions in our updates, it is regularly used by the Ubuntu QA team to test the development release and in stable bug fix updates. The scripts in QRT have on several occasions found bugs in software in our development release that led to upstream and/or Debian bug reports and fixes. I also regularly update the Ubuntu CVE Tracker and security team tools for tracking, building and publishing security updates.

Another part of what I do is help develop security features, tools and documentation for Ubuntu. I am the principal author of the Uncomplicated Firewall (ufw) which aims to help people unfamiliar with firewall concepts be safer while helping seasoned administrators get their job done faster. It’s the default firewall for Ubuntu and included in other distributions such as Debian and Arch Linux. Several projects have popped up around ufw and provide graphical frontends, and I coordinate features and bug fixes in ufw with those projects.

I have joined the AppArmor project. AppArmor is the default Mandatory Access Control (MAC) system in Ubuntu and OpenSUSE, and thanks to to the tireless work of John Johansen and many others, is now included in the mainline Linux kernel. My upstream focus is on AppArmor testing, profiling, documentation, userspace tools and ease of distribution integration. In addition, I regularly participate in upstream planning discussions and meetings. For Ubuntu, I have authored many of the profiles in Ubuntu and regularly provide testing, bug fixes and new versions of AppArmor in Ubuntu.

I’ve also authored a few smaller applications like auth-client-config, openssl-blacklist, and openvpn-blacklist. auth-client-config is a program for modifying nsswitch.conf and pam configuration, but has largely been superseded in Ubuntu by pam-auth-update. The openssl-blacklist and openvpn-blacklist tools and lists were developed by me to detect known-bad RSA keys, and are included in Debian. I’ve had patches accepted by upstream for random software such as Gnucash and Gourmet, and have submitted many patches to Debian over the years.

I use virtualization for much of my development work and testing, so I regularly triage and fix bugs in libvirt and other parts of the virtualization stack with the Ubuntu Server team. I wrote and regularly maintain the AppArmor security driver in upstream libvirt. In Ubuntu I tend to focus on libvirt’s bug triage, AppArmor integration, merges with Debian, and testing. Writing much of the vm-tools in the Ubuntu QA Tools, I hope these scripts help anyone be more efficient when trying to manipulate several machines at one time, such as when performing ISO testing or testing a patch on many different operating systems.

When not working at home, I might be at a conference such as the Ubuntu Developer Summit (UDS), where I collaborate with people from all over the world in the Ubuntu community and upstreams to help plan and implement new features with security in mind. I’ve also attended security conferences such as DefCon and BlackHat.

Yes, I work with computers and am happy for it! On any given day I might publish an update, audit a piece of software, discuss a vulnerability with upstream, submit a profile to AppArmor, forward a patch to Debian, plan a ufw feature, test and refine a security fix with other vendors, triage and comment on a security vulnerability, write up some documentation, develop a test script, and/or fire up a bunch of virtual machines. What I do is fun, challenging… satisfying. It is hugely rewarding working on Free Software with so many talented and intelligent individuals in Canonical, the Ubuntu community, and the upstreams I interact with every day. I am blessed to work with these fantastic people who continually inspire me to stretch to learn and do more. I believe by working together on Free Software all of us are in our own way changing the world for the better. That’s why I do what I do.

fsck, mountall, /var and Lucid August 4, 2010

Posted by jdstrand in ubuntu, ubuntu-server.

So yesterday I rebooted a Lucid server I administer, and fsck ran. Ok, that’s cool. Granted it takes about 45 minutes on my RAID1 terabyte filesystem, but so be it. As in the past, I was slightly annoyed again that upstart/plymouth did not tell me that it was fscking my drive like my desktop does (may be it’s because this was an upgrade from Hardy and not a fresh install? It would be nice if I looked into why), but I knew that was what was happening, so I went about my business .

Until… there was a failure that had to be manually resolved by fsck. Looking at the path, it was no big deal (easily restoreable), so I just needed to run ‘fsck /dev/md2’. Hmmm, /dev/md2 is /var on this system, and mountall got stuck cause /var couldn’t be mounted. Getting slightly more annoyed, I tried to reboot with ‘Ctrl+Alt+Del’, but that didn’t work, so I had to SysRq my way out (using Alt+SysRq+R, Alt+SysRq+S, Alt+SysRq+U, and finally Alt+SysRq+B) and boot into single usermode. Surely I could reboot to runlevel 1 and get a prompt…. 45 minutes later (ie, after another failed fsck on /var) I was shown to be wrong. Thankfully I had an amd64 10.04 Server CD handy and booted into rescue mode, which in the end worked fine for fscking my drive manually.

Why was running fsck manually so hard? Why is plymouth/upstart so quiet on my server?

It turns out because I removed ‘splash quiet’ from my kernel boot options, plymouth wouldn’t show the message to ‘S’ (skip) or ‘M’ (maunually recover) /var. It was still running, so I could press ‘m’ to get to a maintenance shell (you might need to change your tty for this).

For the plymouth/upstart silence I came across the following:

In short, the above has you add to /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-custom.conf:
blacklist vga16fb

Then adjust your kernel boot line to have:
ro nosplash INIT_VERBOSE=yes init=/sbin/init noplymouth -v

This is not as pretty as SysV bootup, but is verbose enough to let you know what is happening. The problem is that because there is no plymouth, there is no way enter a maintenance shell when you need to, so the above is hard to recommend. :(

To me, it boils down to the following two choices:

  • Boot with ‘splash’ but without ‘quiet’ and lose boot messages but gain fsck feedback
  • Boot without ‘splash quiet’ and lose fsck feedback and remember you can press ‘m’ to enter a maintenance shell when there is a problem

It would really be nice to have both fsck feedback and no splash, but this doesn’t seem possible at this time. If someone knows a way to do this on Lucid, please let me know. In the meantime, I have filed bug #613562.

Proposed chromium-browser available for Lucid July 8, 2010

Posted by jdstrand in security, ubuntu.
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A proposed security update for chromium-browser on Ubuntu 10.04 LTS is available. If you are able, please test and comment in https://launchpad.net/bugs/602142.

Security update for chromium-browser in lucid-proposed June 10, 2010

Posted by jdstrand in security, ubuntu.
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Fabien Tassin (fta) has prepared a security update for chromium-browser for Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx). Please test and provide positive and/or negative feedback in: https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/chromium-browser/+bug/591474.

This update addresses the following upstream issues:

Thanks Fabien!

Chromium saved passwords May 18, 2010

Posted by jdstrand in security, ubuntu.

I make use of the Master Password feature in Firefox. While not on by default, when enabled this feature encrypts your Firefox saved passwords on disk, and Firefox will prompt you when you need access to a saved password. When your browser is not running, your passwords are safe. There is a tool to try to brute force your master password if your machine is stolen, but as long as you use a strong password you should be ok (or at the very least, give you time to change them). For more information, see http://kb.mozillazine.org/Master_password.

This is a nice feature, and one which Chromium lacks. If you let Chromium save your passwords, they are stored in the ‘~/.config/chromium/Default/Web Data’ sqlite database. Displaying them is surprisingly easy (this is 5.0.342.9~r43360-0ubuntu2 on Ubuntu 10.04 LTS, newer versions may save them somewhere else):

$ echo 'SELECT username_value, password_value FROM logins;' | sqlite3 ~/.config/chromium/Default/Web\ Data | grep -v '^|$'

As you can see, in essence your passwords are stored in plain text on your disk (though the ~/.config/chromium directory does have 0700 permissions). I won’t go into the reasons why Google hasn’t implemented this feature yet since people can read the bug, but it seems clear that:

  • Google is not going to fix this anytime soon
  • People need a way to protect themselves

There are some alternatives with LastPass and RoboForm, but these apparently require you to store your passwords online (I’ve not verified this personally). As it stands, there is not a way to lock your saved passwords, so I encourage Chromium users to encrypt their data using eCryptfs or LUKS full disk encryption so that at least when you turn off your computer the passwords are not readily available. In Ubuntu, you can:

  • setup LUKS full disk encryption using the alternate installer
  • setup an encrypted home directory in all the Desktop and Server installers (or migrate an existing home directory by using ‘ecryptfs-migrate-home’)
  • setup an encrypted private directory using ‘ecryptfs-setup-private’ (if you go this route, you’ll want to move ~/.config/chromium and ~/.cache/chromium into the encrypted directory and use symlinks to point to them)

In this scenario, normal DAC permissions will protect your passwords on multiuser systems (though you’ll need to be careful about the security of backups) and encrypted disks/folders will protect them in the case of theft. As always, please be vigilant about screen locking when you leave your computer while logged in though….

Browser profiles in Chromium May 17, 2010

Posted by jdstrand in ubuntu.

A coworker turned me onto browser profiles in Firefox (thanks Kees!). Browser profiles are a great way to keep your passwords, bookmarks, preferences and even extensions separate. I like to use one for work and one for personal stuff (and a few others). For more information on how to use them in Firefox, see http://support.mozilla.com/en-US/kb/profiles.

I started playing with Chromium lately, and found that it also supports profiles (see http://www.chromium.org/user-experience/user-data-directory), but not quite as conveniently as Firefox. With Firefox, you can launch it like so:

$ firefox -ProfileManager -no-remote
and get a nice little dialog. Well, I wanted the same in Chromium, so I hacked up this little script which achieves the same:

set -e
profiles="True Default"
for d in `find -H $topdir -maxdepth 1 -mindepth 1 -type d` ; do
  if [ "$d" != "$topdir/Default" ] && [ "$d" != "$topdir/Dictionaries" ]; then
    profiles="$profiles False `basename $d`"
if ans=`zenity --title "Chromium profile chooser" --text "Choose a profile from the list below:" --list --radiolist --column "Profile" --column "Item" $profiles` ; then
  if [ "$ans" = "Default" ]; then
    chromium-browser $@
    chromium-browser --user-data-dir="$topdir/$ans" $@
  echo "Aborted"

I saved this as $HOME/bin/chromium-launcher.sh then created a launcher in Gnome using:

/home/<my username>/bin/chromium-launcher.sh %u

This should pick up new profiles as you add them and also works the first time you launch Chromium. Enjoy!

ClamAV update May 7, 2010

Posted by jdstrand in security, ubuntu, ubuntu-server.
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Upstream ClamAV pushed out an update via freshclam that crashed versions of 0.95 and earlier on 32 bit systems (Ubuntu 9.10 and earlier are affected). Upstream issued an update via freshclam within 15 minutes, but affected users’ clamd daemon will not restart automatically. People running ClamAV should check that it is still running. For details see:


Sponsorship process updated for security updates December 14, 2009

Posted by jdstrand in ubuntu.
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As posted to ubuntu-devel:


At UDS Lucid we discussed[1] ways to improve the sponsorship of security
updates, particularly for community supported packages. As a result, we
have changed our process to work like other similar processes and
integrate into the SRU process for certain updates. The changes are:

* A new team has been created (ubuntu-security-sponsors) to review community contributed security updates
* ubuntu-security and motu-swat are members of ubuntu-security-sponsors
* The SecurityTeam/UpdatePreparation page has been updated for the changes
* SponsorshipProcess has been updated to include our new process
* The process for sponsoring large updates has been formalized, and utilizes the verification procedures of SRU
* SecurityTeam/SponsorsQueue has been created (based on MOTU’s) for the process of handling the security sponsorship queue

If you have any questions regarding the new process, don’t hesitate to ask. Hopefully these changes will make it easier for people to contribute security updates, make our team a little more transparent, and ultimately better integrate our teams.



[1] https://blueprints.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+spec/security-lucid-sponsorship-review

AppArmor sVirt security driver for libvirt November 3, 2009

Posted by jdstrand in security, ubuntu, ubuntu-server.

Ubuntu has been using libvirt as part of its recommended virtualization management toolkit since Ubuntu 8.04 LTS. In short, libvirt provides a set of tools and APIs for managing virtual machines (VMs) such as creating a VM, modifying its hardware configuration, starting and stopping VMs, and a whole lot more. For more information on using libvirt in Ubuntu, see http://doc.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/serverguide/C/libvirt.html.

Libvirt greatly eases the deployment and management of VMs, but due to the fact that it has traditionally been limited to using POSIX ACLs and sometimes needs to perform privileged actions, using libvirt (or any virtualization technology for that matter) can create a security risk, especially when the guest VM isn’t trusted. It is easy to imagine a bug in the hypervisor which would allow a compromised VM to modify other guests or files on the host. Considering that when using qemu:///system the guest VM process runs as a root (this is configurable in 0.7.0 and later, but still the default in Fedora and Ubuntu 9.10), it is even more important to contain what a guest can do. To address these issues, SELinux developers created a fork of libvirt, called sVirt, which when using kvm/qemu, allows libvirt to add SELinux labels to files required for the VM to run. This work was merged back into upstream libvirt in version 0.6.1, and it’s implementation, features and limitations can be seen in a blog post by Dan Walsh and an article on LWN.net. This is inspired work, and the sVirt folks did a great job implementing it by using a plugin framework so that others could create different security drivers for libvirt.

AppArmor Security Driver for Libvirt
While Ubuntu has SELinux support, by default it uses AppArmor. AppArmor is different from SELinux and some other MAC systems available on Linux in that it is path-based, allows for mixing of enforcement and complain mode profiles, uses include files to ease development, and typically has a far lower barrier to entry than other popular MAC systems. It has been an important security feature of Ubuntu since 7.10, where CUPS was confined by AppArmor in the default installation (more profiles have been added with each new release).

Since virtualization is becoming more and more prevalent, improving the security stance for libvirt users is of primary concern. It was very natural to look at adding an AppArmor security driver to libvirt, and as of libvirt 0.7.2 and Ubuntu 9.10, users have just that. In terms of supported features, the AppArmor driver should be on par with the SELinux driver, where the vast majority of libvirt functionality is supported by both drivers out of the box.

First, the libvirtd process is confined with a lenient profile that allows the libvirt daemon to launch VMs, change into another AppArmor profile and use virt-aa-helper to manipulate AppArmor profiles. virt-aa-helper is a helper application that can add, remove, modify, load and unload AppArmor profiles in a limited and restricted way. Specifically, libvirtd is not allowed to adjust anything in /sys/kernel/security directly, or modify the profiles for the virtual machines directly. Instead, libvirtd must use virt-aa-helper, which is itself run under a very restrictive AppArmor profile. Using this architecture helps prevent any opportunities for a subverted libvirtd to change its own profile (especially useful if the libvirtd profile is adjusted to be restrictive) or modify other AppArmor profiles on the system.

Next, there are several profiles that comprise the system:

  • /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.libvirtd
  • /etc/apparmor.d/usr.bin.virt-aa-helper
  • /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/libvirt-qemu
  • /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/TEMPLATE
  • /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/libvirt-<uuid>
  • /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/libvirt-<uuid>.files

/etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.libvirtd and /etc/apparmor.d/usr.bin.virt-aa-helper define the profiles for libvirtd and virt-aa-helper (note that in libvirt 0.7.2, virt-aa-helper is located in /usr/lib/libvirt/virt-aa-helper). /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/TEMPLATE is consulted when creating a new profile when one does not already exist. /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/libvirt-qemu is the abstraction shared by all running VMs. /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/libvirt-<uuid> is the unique base profile for an individual VM, and /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/libvirt-<uuid>.files contains rules for the guest-specific files required to run this individual VM.

The confinement process is as follows (assume the VM has a libvirt UUID of ‘a22e3930-d87a-584e-22b2-1d8950212bac’):

  1. When libvirtd is started, it determines if it should use a security driver. If so, it checks which driver to use (eg SELinux or AppArmor). If libvirtd is confined by AppArmor, it will use the AppArmor security driver
  2. When a VM is started, libvirtd decides whether to ask virt-aa-helper to create a new profile or modify an existing one. If no profile exists, libvirtd asks virt-aa-helper to generate the new base profile, in this case /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/libvirt-a22e3930-d87a-584e-22b2-1d8950212bac, which it does based on /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/TEMPLATE. Notice, the new profile has a profile name that is based on the guest’s UUID. Once the base profile is created, virt-aa-helper works the same for create and modify: virt-aa-helper will determine what files are required for the guest to run (eg kernel, initrd, disk, serial, etc), updates /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/libvirt-a22e3930-d87a-584e-22b2-1d8950212bac.files, then loads the profile into the kernel.
  3. libvirtd will proceed as normal at this point, until just before it forks a qemu/kvm process, it will call aa_change_profile() to transition into the profile ‘libvirt-a22e3930-d87a-584e-22b2-1d8950212bac’ (the one virt-aa-helper loaded into the kernel in the previous step)
  4. When the VM is shutdown, libvirtd asks virt-aa-helper to remove the profile, and virt-aa-helper unloads the profile from the kernel

It should be noted that due to current limitations of AppArmor, only qemu:///system is confined by AppArmor. In practice, this is fine because qemu:///session is run as a normal user and does not have privileged access to the system like qemu:///system does.

Basic Usage
By default in Ubuntu 9.10, both AppArmor and the AppArmor security driver for libvirt are enabled, so users benefit from the AppArmor protection right away. To see if libvirtd is using the AppArmor security driver, do:

$ virsh capabilities
Connecting to uri: qemu:///system

Next, start a VM and see if it is confined:

$ virsh start testqemu
Connecting to uri: qemu:///system
Domain testqemu started

$ virsh domuuid testqemu
Connecting to uri: qemu:///system

$ sudo aa-status
apparmor module is loaded.
16 profiles are loaded.
16 profiles are in enforce mode.
0 profiles are in complain mode.
6 processes have profiles defined.
6 processes are in enforce mode :
  libvirt-a22e3930-d87a-584e-22b2-1d8950212bac (6089)
0 processes are in complain mode.
0 processes are unconfined but have a profile defined.

$ ps ww 6089
6089 ? R 0:00 /usr/bin/qemu-system-x86_64 -S -M pc-0.11 -no-kvm -m 64 -smp 1 -name testqemu -uuid a22e3930-d87a-584e-22b2-1d8950212bac -monitor unix:/var/run/libvirt/qemu/testqemu.monitor,server,nowait -boot c -drive file=/var/lib/libvirt/images/testqemu.img,if=ide,index=0,boot=on -drive file=,if=ide,media=cdrom,index=2 -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:86:5b:6e,vlan=0,model=virtio,name=virtio.0 -net tap,fd=17,vlan=0,name=tap.0 -serial none -parallel none -usb -vnc -k en-us -vga cirrus

Here is the unique, restrictive profile for this VM:

$ cat /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/libvirt-a22e3930-d87a-584e-22b2-1d8950212bac
# This profile is for the domain whose UUID
# matches this file.
#include <tunables/global>
profile libvirt-a22e3930-d87a-584e-22b2-1d8950212bac {
   #include <abstractions/libvirt-qemu>
   #include <libvirt/libvirt-a22e3930-d87a-584e-22b2-1d8950212bac.files>

$ cat /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/libvirt-a22e3930-d87a-584e-22b2-1d8950212bac.files
  "/var/log/libvirt/**/testqemu.log" w,
  "/var/run/libvirt/**/testqemu.monitor" rw,
  "/var/run/libvirt/**/testqemu.pid" rwk,
  "/var/lib/libvirt/images/testqemu.img" rw,

Now shut it down:

$ virsh shutdown testqemu
Connecting to uri: qemu:///system
Domain testqemu is being shutdown

$ virsh domstate testqemu
Connecting to uri: qemu:///system
shut off

$ sudo aa-status | grep 'a22e3930-d87a-584e-22b2-1d8950212bac'

Advanced Usage
In general, you can forget about AppArmor confinement and just use libvirt like normal. The guests will be isolated from each other and user-space protection for the host is provided. However, the design allows for a lot of flexibility in the system. For example:

  • If you want to adjust the profile for all future, newly created VMs, adjust /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt/TEMPLATE
  • If you need to adjust access controls for all VMs, new or existing, adjust /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/libvirt-qemu
  • If you need to adjust access controls for a single guest, adjust /etc/apparmor.d/libvirt-<uuid>, where <uuid> is the UUID of the guest
  • To disable the driver, either adjust /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf to have ‘security_driver = “none”‘ or remove the AppArmor profile for libvirtd from the kernel and restart libvirtd

Of course, you can also adjust the profiles for libvirtd and virt-aa-helper if desired. All the files are simple text files. See AppArmor for more information on using AppArmor in general.

Limitations and the Future
While the sVirt framework provides good guest isolation and user-space host protection, the framework does not provide protection against in-kernel attacks (eg, where a guest process is able to access the host kernel memory). The AppArrmor security driver as included in Ubuntu 9.10 also does not handle access to host devices as well as it could. Allowing a guest to access a local pci device or USB disk is a potentially dangerous operation anyway, and the driver will block this access by default. Users can work around this by adjusting the base profile for the guest.

There are few missing features in the sVirt model, such as labeling state files. The AppArmor driver also needs to better support host devices. Once AppArmor provides the ability for regular users to define profiles, then qemu:///session can be properly supported. Finally, it will be great when distributions take advantage of libvirt’s recently added ability to run guests as non-root when using qemu:///system (while the sVirt framework largely mitigates this risk, it is good to have security in depth).

While cloud computing feels like it is talked about everywhere and virtualization becoming even more important in the data center, leveraging technologies like libvirt and AppArmor is a must. Virtualization removes the traditional barriers afforded to stand-alone computers, thus increasing the attack surface for hostile users and compromised guests. By using the sVirt framework in libvirt, and in particular AppArmor on Ubuntu 9.10, administrators can better defend themselves against virtualization-specific attacks. Have fun and be safe!

More Information

Happy Halloween! November 1, 2009

Posted by jdstrand in ubuntu.

Karmic Pumpkin
Karmic Pumpkin (Lit)